The Maritime Transport.
The cargo turnover of the seaports.
In 2015, the volume of port throughput in Russia increased by 5,7%, as compared to 2014, and has amounted 676,8 mil. tons (+5,3%), including 312,3 mil. tons of dry bulk and 364,5 mil. tons (+6,0%) of liquid bulk.
This increase in the volume of dry bulk throughput in the Russian seaports is determined by the growth of coal throughput, by 6,0%, up to 123,3 mil. tons, of grains - by 15,1%, up to 34,4 mil. tons, of ferrous metals – by 12,2 %, up to 26,2 mil. tons, of cargo on ferries – by 1,9 times, up to 21,7 mil. tons, of mineral fertilizers – by 8,9 %, up to 16,0 mil. tons, of ore – by 10, 8%, up to 6,7 mil. tons, and of timber cargo – by 10,7 %, up to 5,3 mil. tons. It is also necessary to note the significant growth (by 1,5 times) of the volumes of throughput of dry bulk in the cabotage. At the same time, the throughput of container cargo has decreased by 14,4%, down to 40,1 mil. tons, and of metal scrap – by 8,8 %, down to 4,2 mil. tons.
The throughput of liquid bulk has increased, due to the crude oil throughput, by 8%, up to 202,1 mil. tons, of refined oil products – by 3,7 %, up to 146,0, and of liquefied gas – by 5,1%, up to 12,9 mil. tons.
The analysis of throughput in the seaports by direction shows the growth of the throughput volumes in exports – by 7,7 %, in transits – by 1,2%, and in cabotage – by 15,8%. The imports have decreased by 23,3%.
The volume of the throughput of cargoes in the seaports of Russia in 2015
Mil. of tons (the vertical axis),
In total – dry bulk – liquid bulk
The volume of the throughput of cargoes in the seaports of Russia in 2015,
The Quantity, mil. tons (the rectangle) – the Share, % (the circle)
Exports – Imports –Transits - Cabotage
The maritime transportation of cargoes and passengers in 2015.
The share of the throughput of cargoes, as divided by the aquatic areas, mil. tons and %
The Far East
The Azov and the Black Sea
In 2015, the maritime transportation of cargoes amounted 18,3 mil. tons, and the cargo turnover – 21,5 ton-miles. In the total volume of transportation, 13,7 mil. tons of cargo were transported in abroad operation, 7,8 mil tons – in cabotage.
The main types of cargo, transported on the Russian vessels, are liquid bulk, metals and coal.
9556,4 thousand passengers were transported in 2015 in all kinds of maritime transportation.
Steps in development of portal infrastructure were taken in such seaports as Sabetta, Murmansk, the Big Port of St. Petersburg, Ust-Lugah, Kaliningrad, Taman, Temryuk, Novorossiysk, Vanino, the East port, and Petropavlovsk-in-Kamchatka.
The following objects were developed in 2015:
· the first stage of development of the “Bronka” multifunctional throughput complex (MFTC), with the capacity of 500 thousand TEU (6 mil. tons) and 130 thousand units of rolling cargo (2,08 mil tons) per year.
· the temporary roads throughput complex in the seaport of Murmansk, with the capacity of up to 15 mil. tons
· berths No. 12-13 of the seaport of Anadyrr underwent reconstruction (the increase in capacity amounted 0,09 mil tons)
Apart from that, the second stage of development of the MFTC “Bronka” continued, as well as the construction of the Sabetta seaport.
The production capacities have increased by 23,17 mil. tons.
Therefore, the total capacity of the Russian seaports amounts over 940 mil. tons.
Specifying the aquatic boundaries and the territories of the seaports.
According to Article 5 of the Federal Law No. 261-FZ, dated 08.11.2007, “On the seaports in the Russian Federation and on changing certain regulations of the Russian Federation”, a seaport’s territory is defined and changed by the government of the Russian Federation.
As on 01.01. 2016, the boundaries of 66 out of 67 seaports have been defined.
Additionally, in 2015, Rosmorrechflot prepared - and the government of the Russian Federation approved - the changes of the territories of such seaports as the Big Port of St. Petersburg, Ust-Lugah, Astrakhan, Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Nevelsk, Novorossysk, Arkhangelsk, Murmansk, Sabetta, and the boundaries of the seaports were defined in a part of the aquatic areas of Yalta, Theodosiya, Sevastopol and Kerch.
The state border control checkpoints in the sea- and river-ports of the Russian Federation.
In 2015, the arrangement of sea border checkpoints in a better way continued. The boundaries of 25 sea access points were defined, including the ones in the seaports of Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Olga, Posyet (the Maritime Territory), Sovyetskaya Gavan, Okhotsk (The Chabarovsky region), Kholmsk, Korsakov, Nevelsk (the Sakhalin region), Anadyrr (the Chukotka autonomous region), in the seaports of Azov and Rostov-on-Don. A permanent multi-border sea checkpoint over the state border of the Russian Federation was opened in the Varandey seaport.
Ensuring the safety of navigation.
In accordance with the requirements of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea of 1974 (the SOLAS convention) and of the International Marine Organization’s (IMO) Resolution, the coastal states must enforce measures on ensuring the safety of navigation, on the protection of human life at sea, search and rescue of the vessels in distress operations, on the protection of the environment in the seawaters near their shores, from potentially damaging influences from the maritime transportation.
In order to maximally lower the risk of accidents, a complex of measures is provided, regarding the operation and development of the onshore systems of maritime transportation safety provision (SMTSP).
- the differential maritime subsystem of the global navigation satellite systems (the DGNSS) GLONASS /GPS
- the systems of control over shipping traffic (the SCST)
- the global maritime distress and safety system (the GMDSS)
All SMTSP are developed, operated and upgraded as an integral complex that uses united infrastructure and technical policy, and common channels of management and communication. This allows to significantly lower the operational costs and simplifies the tasks of data integration for the systems from different regions.
In 2015, the complex services on safe navigation within the aquatic territory of 33 seaports and at the approaches to them were provided, utilizing 26 SCST, that belong to the “Rosmorport” federal state unitary enterprise (FSUE).
769,7 thousand of vessels have been serviced, which is by 10,2% more than in 2014.
5 accidents were prevented by VTMS operators
All the systems are maintained in operational technical condition, were proved as functional by an appropriate organization and successfully implement their purposes.
In 2015, the FSUE “Rosmorport” took into operation the SMTSP of the Crimea peninsula.
Last year the construction of the following SMTSP objects was finished:
1. The SCST of the Kandalaksha Bay, including the onshore station of Sea Area A1.
2. The regional system of navigation safety in the aquatic area of the ports of Astrakhan and Olya, and at the approaches to them.
3. The reconstruction of the GMDSS objects in Sea Areas A1 and A2 at the approaches to the seaport of Astrakhan.
4. The reconstruction of the GMDSS objects in Sea Areas A1 and A2 at the approaches to the seaport of Arkhangelsk.
In 2015, the project stage of the development of the SMTSP began in the seaports of Kalingrad, Petropavlovsk-in-Kamchatka, Makhachkala, Taganrog, Eysk.
The search and rescue watch and oil spills emergency response
Rosmorrechflot enforces the organization of works in the following functional subsystems:
- the organization and coordination of the work of the emergency search and rescue services (either Russian or foreign), while searching and rescuing people and vessels in distress at sea in the search and rescue regions of the RF
- the organization of works for preventing and eliminating the consequences of spills of oil and oil products at sea from vessels and other objects, regardless of their organizational and national ownership
In order to execute this task of state importance, the emergency and search and rescue watch is organized in the maritime areas and the search and rescue regions of the country. The watchkeeping is performed by the FBI (federal budget institution) “Morspassluzhba of Rosmorrechflot” (sea rescue service), and by 7 collaborative rescue centers and 8 rescue sub-centers. The fleet of the FBI “Morspassluzhba Rosmorrechflot” consists of 133 vessels of various types in different sea areas. The emergency and search and rescue watchkeeping is simultaneously performed by up to 75% of the total personnel of the rescue forces. Every day, there are up to 85 vessels and 500 of sea-rescuers keeping the watch, including over 200 of the personnel of the emergency and rescue divisions for the elimination of the consequences of oil spills.
Since August 2015, the control and management over the state system of search and rescue of people in distress at sea have been executed by the FSBI “The collaborative rescue center of Rosmorrechflot”. In 2015, 84 search and rescue operations were conducted at sea by the forces and means of Rosmorrechflot’s functional subsystems. 67 emergency response and rescue operations were conducted, including 37 with the participation of the forces of the FBI “Morspassluzhba Rosmorrechflota”.
In the course of implementation of the FTP (federal target program) “The development of the Russian Transport System (for the years 2010-2020)”, the following modern salvage vessels were built for the FBI “Morspassluzhba Rosmorrechflota”, in order to solve the tasks of the rescue and search provision in the Arctic and Far East regions:
- the multifunctional emergency and salvage ship with an asymmetric hull, with the installed power of 7MW (“Baltica”), the ice class is Icebreaker 6;
- 2 multifunctional emergency and salvage ships with the installed power of 7MW (“The Bering Strait” and “Murman”), the ice class is Icebreaker 6;
- 4 multifunctional emergency and salvage ships with the installed power of 4 MW, designed according to the project MPSV07 (“the Solver Karev”, “the Solver Kavdeykin”, “the Solver Zaborshikov”, “the Solver Demidov”), the ice class is Arc5.
In order to exercise the coordination of means and forces, to establish collaboration with the rescue services of other bodies and foreign countries, while searching and rescuing or during oil spill responses, in 2015 Rosmorrechflot, in collaboration with the FBI “Morspassluzhba Rosmorrechflota”, conducted 6 complex international large-scale salvage games.
The qualifying commissions of Rosmorrechflot certified 1 professional emergency and rescue division (within the framework of regular certification) and 14 search and rescue bodies of other types (7 within regular certification and 7 for the first time). Also, 1157 rescue-workers were certified.
The results of the Northern Sea Route Administration’s performance
In accordance with the Russian Federation’s Code of the Merchant Navy, the aquatic area of the Northern Sea Route traverses the Arctic waters of the Russian Federation and encompasses the inner seawaters, a territorial sea, the adjacent zone and the RF’s Exclusive Economic Zone, and it is limited in the east by the sea borderline with the United States of America and the latitude of Cape Dezhnev in the Bering Strait, in the west - by the longitude of Cape Zhelaniya, up until the archipelago of Novaya Zemlya, by the eastern shoreline of the archipelago of Novaya Zemlya and the western boundaries of the straits of Matochkin Shar, Kara Gates and Yugorsky Shar.
Rosmorrechflot, in association with the subordinate organizations - the FSUE “Hydro-geographic enterprise” and the FGI (federal government institution) “The Administration of the Northern Sea Route” carries out a complex of measures aimed at providing maritime transportation in the aquatic area of the North Sea Route.
In the aquatic area of the Northern Sea Route, the authorization-based procedure of maritime transportation is established. The maritime transportation is organized by the Northern Sea Route’s Administration, according to the Rules of Navigation, which set the criteria of admission for vessels, taking into account the categories of their ice strengthening, particular ice conditions and the season of navigation. As a state body, in its work the NSRA utilizes the experience of more than 8 decades of conducting Arctic sea expeditions, gained by the predecessors.
Its main purposes are to regulate the maritime transportation, to ensure its safety and to protect the ocean environment from pollution caused by the vessels in the Northern Sea Route aquatic area.
The official site of the Northern Sea Route Administration, www.nsra.ru, has been available since April, 2013. The application for a vessel’s navigation in the Northern Sea Route aquatic area can be submitted electronically. Thus, an easy and simple procedure of issuing permissions has been set, for the navigation in the NSR’s aquatic area, for either Russian and foreign ship owners. The position of the vessels is controlled daily, as well as their provision with the necessary data is ensured, regarding the ice, navigational and hydro-meteorological situation on the path.
In 2015, the NSRA issued 715 permissions for the navigation in the NSR’s aquatic area, including 126 permissions to the vessels flying a foreign flag.
The total volume of transportation in the aquatic area of the Northern Sea Route in 2015 amounted 5,4 thousand tons (which is by 45,4% more than in 2014).
The FSUE “Hydrographic Enterprise”
The headquarters of the Hydrographic Enterprise are situated in St. Petersburg. It has affiliates - the Arctic hydrographic bases of Arkhangelsk, Dixon, Igarka, Khatanga, Tiksy, Kolyma, as well as the Providensky and Pevek maritime-hydrographic pilot crews.
The fleet of the HE consists of 9 hydrographic vessels of ice class Arc5 with an unlimited region of navigation, intended for surveying and charting the ocean bottom relief, for installing and maintaining navigation equipment, delivering supplies to the polar stations.
The HE conducts hydrographic research, maintains in operational condition and upgrades the navigation equipment, installed on the shoreline of the Arctic seas of the NSR’s aquatic area. Also, it collects the Maritime Safety Information for the NAVAREA regions XX and XXI and delivers them to seafarers through the onshore station of the Navtex service and the international SafetyNet service.
In 2015, the Enterprise provided services to 291 objects of navigation equipment. 30 operational autonomous power stations have been installed at the objects that work on solid-state lighting technologies, sun batteries and wind generators.
6 controlling and correcting stations that belong to the HE are currently working in the aquatic area of the Northern Sea Route, they are are a part of the differential subsystem of the global satellite systems GLONASS /GPS - on the Andrew, Stolboboy, Kamenka, Oleny islands, on Cape of Sterligov and the Indigirka River.
Carrying out hydrographic research and tasks is among the long-term priorities, to do with creating the conditions for safe and effective navigation and business operation in the Arctic aquatic area. Targeted hydrographic research of the most important existing, as well as of the newly created, navigable regions and passages of the NSR is currently being conducted.
In 2015, the Enterprise executed the surveys of the ocean bottom relief of separate stretches of the high-latitude route in the amount of 10,6 thousand factored km. In the Ob Bay, from the seaport of Sabetta to the terminal of the Novy Port’s field deposit - in the amount of 25 thousand factored km, as well as of the estuaries of the rivers with the maritime regime of navigation - in the amount of 2.5 thousand factored km.